NEB Class 12 Questions: NEB 12 Model Questions 2080/2024

NEB Class 12 Routine 2080-2081: Class 12 Routine

Class 12 Computer Imp Questions Keywords Syllabus 2080

NEB Class 12 Computer Science Important Questions, Answers, Keywords, Short and Long Question Answers, Assignment Questions for 2080 Exams.
Important Questions Paper of Computer Science Grade 12

NEB Class 12 Computer Science Important Questions 2080: Keyword, short & long Questions

NEB Class 12 Computer Science Important Questions for 2080. This post includes both short and long questions, with a mix of theoretical and practical questions.

The questions are based on the latest syllabus and cover topics such as Database Management Systems, Computer Networks, and Programming languages. 

Additionally, the questions will help the students to get familiar with the format of questions that are expected to come in the board exams.

Table of Contents


A. Syllabus:

    • 1.1 Introduction to data, database, Database system, DBMS
    • 1.2 Field, Record, Objects, Primary Key, Alternate key, Candidate key
    • 1.3 Advantages of using DBMS
    • 1.4 DDL (Data Definition Language) and DML (Data Manipulation Language)
    • 1.5 Database Model: Network Model, Hierarchical Model, Relational database model
    • 1.6 Concept of Normalization: 1NF, 2NF, 3NF
    • 1.7 Centralized Vs. Distributed Database
    • 1.8 Database Security

B. Keywords:

  • Data: Data is defined as raw facts and figures.
  • Information: When data are processed using a database program or software, they are converted to a meaningful result, called information.
  • Records: A row in a table is called a record and it contains information about a person, event, etc. Another name of the record is a tuple.
  • Field: A column in a table is called a field and it contains a specific piece of information within a record.
  • Database: A database is a collection of related information about a subject organized in a useful manner that provides a base or foundation for the procedure, such as retrieving information, drawing conclusions, and making decisions.
  • DBMS: A DBMS is a set of programs that manages the database files. It allows accessing files, updating the records, and retrieving data as requested.
  • RDBMS: The database system which stores and display data in a tabular format of rows and columns, like spreadsheets, is known as Relational Database Management System ( RDBMS ).
  • Primary key: The field or fields that contain the unique value can be set as a primary key.
  • Normalization: Database normalization is the process of organizing the fields and tables of a relational database to minimize redundancy and dependency.
  • Centralized Database: They are located in a particular (central) location and peripherals are connected with it to store and retrieve data as required.
  • Distributed Database: It is a collection of multiple logically interrelated databases which are distributed in many geographical locations.

C. Short Answer Questions:

  1. Differentiate between Database and DBMS. Explain the top-down methodology of Database design.
  2. Explain the benefits of a centralized database System.
  3. Write the advantages and disadvantages of DBMS.
  4. Define primary key, candidate key, and alternate key. Write the importance of the primary key with a suitable example.
  5. Explain DDL and DML with some common commands.
  6. Differentiate between centered and distributed database systems.
  7. Write short notes on the following:
    • a) Data and information 
    • b) Field and record
    • c) Data Dictionary 
    • d) DDL
    • e) DML
    • f) Primary Key
    • g) Relationship

D. Long Answer Questions:

  1. Explain different database models with merits and demerits.
  2. What is normalization? Explain the normalization process with examples.
  3. What is database security? Why is it important? Describe different methods to protect the database of an organization.


A. Syllabus:

    • 2.1 Basic elements of Communication System:
    • 2.2 Concept of Communication System
    • 2.3 Block Diagram of Communication System /Model
    • 2.4 Elements of Data Communication/Transmission
    • 2.5 Simplex, Half duplex, and Full duplex communication mode
    • 2.6 Concept of LAN and WAN
    • 2.7 Transmission Medium: Guided and Unguided
    • 2.8 Transmission impairments terminology (Jitter, Singing, Echo, Crosstalk, Distortion, Noise, Bandwidth, Number of receivers)

B. Keywords:

  • Network communication: It is defined as the exchange of electronic forms of information between sender and receiver devices with the help of means of communication.
  • Communication system: The communication system consists of information transmission from one point to another. The original information signal passes through various States and risks to the destination.
  • Computer network: It is defined as the collection of two or more autonomous Computers which are interconnected together for sharing resources with the help of transmission media and a set of protocols.
  • The direction of communication pool: There are three types of communication flow: simplex, half duplex, and full duplex.
  • Network architecture: Network architecture refers to the various service provided by the network and it also deals with how data is transmitted from one computer to another. There are two types of network architecture: peer-to-peer and client-server.
  • Type of Networks: Based on the size, the computer network is classified into three categories: LAN, MAN, and WAN.
  • Transmission impairments: It means the signals that are transmitted at the beginning of the medium are not the same as the singles that are received at the end of the medium.
  • Topology: Topology refers to the physical structure of a network that deals with how computers are interconnected by using a cabling system. And common LAN topologies are bus, ring, star, Mesh, Tree, and hybrid topologies.
  • Transmission media: Transmission media is defined as the means of communication between two networking devices that helps to transfer data from sender to receiver and vice versa. There are two types of media: guided and unguided.
  • OSI Reference Model: It is an ISO-certified modal that entirely describes how information is transmitted from one application of one computer to another application of another computer.
  • Protocol: It is a set of common rules and procedures governing the transmission of the masses over a physical network medium. Examples of commonly used protocols are TCP/IP, HTTP, FTP, SMTP, POP, CSMA/CD, TOKEN RING, ETHERNET, etc.

C. Short Answer Questions:

  1. Describe computer networks with any three advantages.
  2. Differentiate between LAN and Yan.
  3. How do you define packet tracer?
  4. Difference between the Internet and the Intranet?
  5. Explain bandwidth and echo defended from remote login.
  6. Differentiate between start, apology, and ring topology.
  7. Differentiating between IP address and Mac address.
  8. What is the function of a modem? And sweets.
  9. What is a protocol list? Any pipe communication protocols?

D. Long Answer Questions:

  1. What do you mean by data communication? Explained the data communication model between source and sync using a suitable block diagram.
  2. What do you mean by transmission media? Explain the different types of transmission media used in a computer network.
  3. Define network architecture differences between client, server, and peer-to-peer networks.
  4. What do you mean by the OSI reference model? Explain the different layers of the OSI reference model.
  5. What do you mean by network topology? Explain the different types of network topologies with a suitable diagram.


A. Syllabus:

    • 3.1 Introduction
    • 3.2 Server side and Client Side Scripting
    • 3.3 Introduction to internet technology
    • 3.4 Adding Javascript to HTML page
    • 3.5 Java script fundamental
    • 3.6 Java Script Data types
    • 3.7 Variables and operators
    • 3.8 Functions and control structure if-else, if-else- if, switch-case, for, while, do while loop
    • 3.9 Object-based programming with JavaScript and Event handling
    • 3.10 Image, event, and form objects
    • 3.11 Form validation, JQuery
    • 3.12 Server-Side Scripting using PHP
    • 3.13 Introduction to PHP: Hardware and Software Requirements
    • 3.14 Object-oriented programming with server-side scripting
    • 3.15 Basic PHP syntax
    • 3.16 PHP data types
    • 3.17 Basic Programming in PHP
    • 3.18 Operators (Arithmetic, logical, comparison, operator precedence)
    • 3.19 Variables Manipulation
    • 3.20 Database Connectivity
    • 3.21 Connecting server-side script to database
    • 3.22 Making SQL queries
    • 3.23 Fetching data sets getting data about data
    • 3.24 Creating SQL database with server-side scripting
    • 3.25 Displaying queries in tables

B. Keywords:

  • JavaScript (JS) is the most popular and standard client-side scripting language for developing dynamic websites.
  • Data Types: It provides three main data types: Numbers, Strings and Boolean.
  • Operators: It supports the following types of operators: arithmetic, comparison, logical, assignment, and conditional (or ternary) operators.
  • A function is defined by using the keyword function and Function Constructor is defined by using the keyword new function ().
  • Control Structure: It provides two types of control structures: Branching (if else, if else if, and switch case) and Looping (while, do while, and for)
  • An object is defined as a real-world thing, person, person, etc which has two fundamental characteristics: the collection of properties and a set of behaviors.
  • The properties of an object are termed member variables and the behaviors of the object are termed methods or member functions.
  • Class is defined as the collection of similar types of objects whereas an object of an instance of the respective class.
  • Event Handling is an efficient and user-friendly mechanism in a GUI environment that helps to define an action of an application or user such as mouse click, mouse over, pressing any key, open, close, etc.
  • The Form Validation process helps to improve data consistency by avoiding incorrect data values during data entering time.
  • jQuery is a collection of JavaScript libraries that makes it easy to add dynamic behavior to HTML elements.
  • Server-side scripts are discrete blocks of program code that execute on a web server (as opposed to a web client) computer.
  • When any person requests any PHP page in the address bar of the browser that requests is first sent to the server then the server interprets PHP files and returns back a response in form of Html. That's why it is called Hypertext Preprocessor.
  • Object-Oriented Programming (OOP), is a type of programming language principle that helps in building complex, reusable web applications.
  • A PHP script starts with <?PHP and ends with ?>.
  • A comment in PHP code is a line that is not executed as a part of the program.
  • The CREATE DATABASE statement is used to create a database in MySQL.
  • The CREATE TABLE statements are used to create a table in MySQL.

C. Short Answer Questions:

  1. What are static webpage and dynamic web pages?
  2. Differentiate between client-side and server-side scripting languages.
  3. What is the importance of script in web programming Explain?
  4. Explain how a client-side application can access a server-side application with a suitable diagram.
  5. What is JavaScript? Explain the major features and importance.
  6. What is OOP? Explain the concepts of OOP in the context of JavaScript with a suitable example.
  7. What is an event? list any four popular events.
  8. What is a function constructor? Explain with an example.
  9. What is an array object? Explain how it can be declared.
  10. What is form Validation? Explain the importance of it.
  11. What are PHP operators?
  12. Describe different types of PHP variables.
  13. How do you connect databases with PHP?
  14. Write queries to perform different operations in PHP.

D. Long Answer Questions:

  1. Write steps to creating an SQL database with server-side scripting.
  2. How do you display queries in tables? Explain it with examples.


A. Syllabus:

    • 4.1 Review of C programming concept
    • 4.2 Functions
    • 4.2.1 Concept of library and user-defined functions and advantages
    • 4.2.2 function definition, prototype, call and return statements
    • 4.2.3 Accessing a Function by passing values
    • 4.2.4 Concept of storage: automatic and external
    • 4.2.5 Concept of Recursion: factorial and Fibonacci problems
    • 4.3 Structures and Unions
    • 4.3.1 Structure: Definition, Declaration, Initialization, and Size of Structure.
    • 4.3.2 Accessing Members of the structure
    • 4.3.3 Array of structure
    • 4.3.4 Union: Definition, Declaration
    • 4.3.5 Difference between union and structure.
    • 4.4 Pointers
    • 4.4.1 Definition of Pointer
    • 4.4.2 Address (&) and indirection (*) operator
    • 4.4.3 Pointer Expression and Assignment
    • 4.4.4 Call by values and call by reference
    • 4.5 Working with Files
    • 4.5.1 Concept of Data File
    • 4.5.2 Sequential and Random File
    • 4.5.3 File manipulation function: putw, getw, putc, getc, fscanf, fprintf
    • 4.5.4 Opening, Reading, Writing, and Appending data file

Programming in C is one of the long and Important Chapters for Class 12 NEB Computer, we divided it into 4 different sections as follows:

4.1 Functions:

4.1 A. Keywords:

  • Function: A function is a self-contained subprogram, which is meant to do some specific, well-defined task.
  • Function prototype: The function prototype provides the type of the value returned, the name of the function, and the number and the type of the arguments that must be supplied in a function call to the computer.
  • Function definition: A function definition has two principle components function header or function declaration and body of the function.
  • Function call: A function call is specified by the function name followed by the arguments enclosed in parenthesis and terminated by a semicolon.
  • Return Statements: Return keywords returns the program control from a function to the calling function.
  • Void statement: If a function does not return a value then we say that the function's return type is void.
  • Recursion: Recursion can be regarded as the ability of a function to define an object in terms of a simpler case of itself.
  • Library (built-in) function: C has the facility to provide some library functions to the programmer for doing some operations.
  • User-defined function: The user can also create functions for doing any specific task of the program. Such functions are called user-defined functions.

4.1 B. Short Answer Questions:

  1. Write the syntax of the function.
  2. What is a function prototype?
  3. Define function declaration.
  4. What is a return statement?
  5. Differentiate between void and return statements.

4.1 C. Long Answer Questions:

  1. What is a function? Write advantages of function.
  2. What are the types of functions? Explain.
  3. Explain the components of function.
  4. What is recursion? Explain with one example.
  5. Differentiate between the library and user-defined functions.

4.2 Structures and Unions:

4.2 A. Keywords:

  • Structure: Structure is defined as the collection of data items with different data types. It is just like recording in a database system. The struct keyword is used to declare the structure variable.
  • Member of structure: Each data item is called a member of the structure.
  • Tag of the structure: types of structure are defined by the tag of the structure.
  • Dot operator: A member of the Structure can be accessed by using the dot operator in between the structure variable and the member.
  • Typedef: It is a user-defined data type because a user can able to define his/her data type. We can able use typedef Keywords to define structure as user-defined variables.
  • Union: Union is similar to the structure but it differs in the storage location of its members and all the members can share a common memory location.
  • Nested Structure: A structure can be defined as a member of another structure called a nested structure.
  • Sizeof: The sizeof function helps us to determine the actual memory size of any type of variable even structure variable.

4.2 B. Short Answer Questions:

  1. What is structure?
  2. How do you access any member of the structure?
  3. Define Union.

4.2 C. Long Answer Questions:

  1. Explain structure and union with respective examples.
  2. Differentiate between structure and union.
  3. Differentiate between array and structure.
  4. Is it possible to pass a structure variable to a function? Explain with suitable examples.
  5. What is nested structure? Explain with a suitable example.
  6. "Structure is called user-defined data type". Justify your answer with an example.

4.3 Pointer:

4.3 B. Keywords:

  • Pointer: A pointer is a variable that points to another variable which means it contains the memory address (location) of another variable and is declared as the pointer type.
  • Dynamic memory allocation: The pointer assigns the memory space and also releases it which makes the best use of the available memory during the running time of a program.
  • & and * operator: The '&' is the address operator, it represents the address of the variable, and the '*' operator is the value at the address operator.
  • Pointer Assignment: Pointer Assignment is a type of expression used to assign a value of one pointer to another using the assignment operator '='.
  • Call by value: In call by value, the values of the variables are passed. In this, the values of variables are not affected by changing the values of the formal parameter.
  • Call by reference: In call by reference, the address of the variable is passed. The contents of that address can be accessed freely, either within the function or within the calling routine.

4.3 C. Short Answer Questions:

  1. What is Pointer?
  2. Lists operator used in the pointer.

4.3 D. Long Answer Questions:

  1. Define the term pointer and its uses.
  2. Differentiate between array and pointer.
  3. Write down the similarities and differences of an array with the pointer.
  4. Define the term call by value and call by reference.
  5. Differentiate between structures and pointers with examples.
  6. Define the indirection and address of operators in the pointer.

4.4 Working with Files:

4.4 A. Keywords:

  • Data file: A data file is a collection of data or information which is permanently stored inside secondary memory.
  • FILE: The keyword FILE is used to define the file data type and EOF is used to represent the end of the file.
  • fopen() / fclose(): fopen() is used to open or define data file and, fclose() is used to close data file.
  • Modes of FILE: Three popular modes of a file are:- w: write mode, r: read mode, and a: append mode.
  • File input/output functions: Popular file input/output functions are getc()/putc() for characters, getw()/putw() for integers, fscanf()/fprintf() for any formatted data type, and fread()/fwrite() for the structure data type.
  • File processing techniques: Two types of file processing techniques are used: sequential access and random access file processing techniques.
  • Sequential access technique: In the sequential access technique, the file is accessed serially from the beginning to the ending part of the file, whereas in the random access technique, data can be accessed from any part of the file.
  • remove()/rename(): The remove() function helps us to delete file and the rename() function helps us to rename the data file.

4.4 B. Short Answer Questions:

  1. What is a data file? Write the syntax to open and close the data file.
  2. Differentiate between sequential access and random-access techniques of data files with suitable examples.
  3. What are the file input/output functions? Explain their syntax.
  4. Write the functions of rename() and remove() with examples.

4.4 C. Long Answer Questions:

  1. Write a program to enter the name, roll_no, and marks of 5 students and store them in a file "Student. data".
  2. Write a program using C language that reads successive records from the new data files and displays each record on the screen in an appropriate format.
  3. Write a program to store the std no, name and mark of 'n' students in a data file. Display the records in the appropriate format reading from the file.
  4. Write a program to delete and rename data files using the remove and rename command.
  5. Write a C program with menu base system that has the following features:
    • a) Appending records
    • b) Reading records
    • c) Delete records
    • d) Quit


A. Syllabus:

    • 5.1 Programming paradigms: procedural, structural, and object-oriented
    • 5.2 Features of OOP: Class, Object, Polymorphism, and Inheritance
    • 5.3 Advantages of OOP
    • 5.4 Application of OOP

B. Keywords:

  • OOP: OOP is a programming paradigm in which emphasis is given to data rather than process.
  • Object: An object is any entity, thing, or organization that exists in the real world that consists of two fundamental characteristics: its attributes and behaviors.
  • Class: A class is a collection of similar objects. It is defined as the template or prototype to define the common attributes and behavior for all the objects of the class.
  • Abstraction: It defines the conceptual boundaries of an object. So, abstraction is the act of representing essential features without including the background details.
  • Encapsulation: Encapsulation is a way of organizing data and functions into a structure (called class) by concealing (hiding) the way the object is implemented.
  • Inheritance: The process of creating a new class from an existing class in which objects of the new class inherit the attributes and behaviors of the existing class is known as Inheritance.
  • Polymorphism: Polymorphism refers to the ability of an object to take on different forms depending upon the situation.

C. Short Answer Questions:

  1. Define Object-oriented Programming. List out the characteristics of OOP.
  2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of OOP?
  3. Why are inheritance and polymorphism important features in OOP? Explain.
  4. What are the differences between OOP and structured programming languages?
    • a) Object
    • b) Class
    • c) Data Abstraction
    • d) Encapsulation


A. Syllabus:

    • 6.1 Software Project Concept
    • 6.2 Concept of the software development process
    • 6.3 Concept SDLC life cycle
    • 6.4 System Analyst Vs Software Engineer
    • 6.5 Requirement Collection Methods
    • 6.6 Concept of system design
    • 6.7 Software and quality
    • 6.8 Software development model: waterfall, prototype, agile

B. Keywords:

  • System Analyst: A system analyst is a person who is involved in analyzing, designing, implementing, and evaluating computer-based information to support the decision-making and operation of an organization.
  • Attributes of system analyst: The main attributes of a system analyst are knowledge of the organization, knowledge of computer software and hardware, interpersonal relationship, analytical mind, communicating skills, and breadth of knowledge.
  • SDLC: SDLC consists of a set of development activities that have a prescribed order. It is the development of software in chronological order.
  • Waterfall Model: The waterfall model is sometimes called the classic life cycle because it suggests a systematic, sequential approach to software development. It begins with customer specification of requirements and progresses through planning, modeling, construction, etc.
  • Phases of waterfall model: The main phases of the waterfall model are Requirements analysis and definition, System Design, Implementation, and unit testing, Integration and system testing, and, Operation and maintenance.
  • Prototyping: The process of building a preliminary system and then trying again to develop a system by an iterative process of system development is called prototyping.
  • Phases of prototyping: The main phases of the prototyping model are Identifying the user needs, developing a prototype, determine if the prototype is acceptable, and Using the prototype.
  • The agile SDLC model is a combination of iterative and incremental process models with a focus on process adaptability and customer satisfaction by rapid delivery of working software products.
  • The phase of SDLC: The main phases of SDLC are system study, system analysis, system design, system development, system testing, implementation, and maintenance, and review.
  • Feasibility analysis: Feasibility analysis is the study of whether the system is feasible to design or not. Feasibility analysis is the process by which feasibility is measured. Feasibility should be measured throughout the life cycle. The main feasibility studies are technical, economic, operational, legal, and schedule feasibility.
  • DFD: DFD is the logical diagram to describe the flow of data inside the components of the system. The main components are process, data store, data flow, and external entities.
  • E-R diagram: The E-R diagram is an overall logical structure of a database that can be expressed graphically. The main components are attributes, entities, and relationships.
  • Algorithm: An algorithm is defined as a finite sequence of instructions for solving a problem.
  • Flowchart: A flowchart is the pictorial representation of an algorithm which is classified into two types: system flowchart and program flowchart.
  • Pseudo code: Pseudocode is a kind of algorithm for solving a problem and the instructions of pseudo code are written by using English phrases and mathematical expressions.
  • Decision table: A decision table allows us to identify the exact course of actions for given conditions in tabular form.
  • Decision tree: A decision tree allows us to identify the exact course of actions for given conditions in a tree structure.
  • UML: UML is a standardized general-purpose modeling language in the field of object-oriented software engineering.
  • Use case: A use case in software engineering is a description of steps or actions between a user (or "actor") and a software system that leads the user toward something useful.

C. Short Answer Questions:

  1. Explain the software project and software project manager in brief. Also, list out the responsibility of the software project manager.
  2. Explain different activities carried out in software project management.
  3. Differentiate between system analyst and software engineer.
  4. Define system testing. Differentiate between black box testing and white box testing.
  5. Explain key aspects that can determine the quality of software.
  6. Explain different techniques for gathering requirements.
  7. Explain different types of system implementations.
  8. Differentiate between the top-down and bottom-up approaches of system design.
  9. Writes short notes on:
    • a) DFD
    • b) ER diagram
    • c) Case diagram
    • d) UML
    • e) System flowchart

D. Long Answer Questions

  1. Define System development life cycle. Explain different phases of the system development life cycle.
  2. Who is the system analyst? Explain the roles and characteristics of a system analyst.
  3. Explain the waterfall, prototyping, and agile model of software development with advantages and disadvantages.
  4. What do you mean by feasibility study? Why is it necessary before designing a system? Explain the different levels of the feasibility study.
  5. Explain any five system design tools with examples.


A. Syllabus:

    • 7.1 Concept of Artificial Intelligence(AI)and Robotics
    • 7.2 Concept of Cloud Computing
    • 7.3 Concept of Big Data
    • 7.4 Concept of Virtual Reality
    • 7.5 Concept of e-com, e-medicine, e-gov.
    • 7.6 Concept of Mobile Computing
    • 7.7 Concept of Internet of things(IoT)

B. Keywords:

  • Artificial Intelligence: Artificial Intelligence is a branch of computer science that is concerned with programs that solve and analyze problems intelligently.
  • Components of AI: The components of AI are: Search, Pattern Recognition, Logic generated, Common Sense, and Reasoning, Learning from Experience, Genetic Programming, and Neural Networks.
  • Uses of AI: AI can be frequently used in the area of Game Playing, Expert Systems, Speech Recognition, Pattern Detection, Natural language Processing, Automated Operations, and Robotics.
  • Ethical aspects of AI: The ethical aspects of AI are: AI builders have an obligation not to exploit people's ignorance, Robots are not really your friends and AI should be under intellectual property rights.
  • Robotics: Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, structural disposition, manufacture, and application of robots.
  • Cloud Computing: Cloud Computing is the delivery of computing services such as databases, storage, networking, software, etc over the internet to offer faster innovation and flexible resources.
  • Big Data: Big Data is a large, more complex set that needs specialized tools and models to process and extract.
  • Virtual Reality: Virtual Reality is a new computational paradigm that redefines the interface between humans and computer-becomes a significant and universal technology and subsequently penetrates applications for education and learning.
  • e-Commerce: e-commerce refers to online transactions, but also extends to all Internet-based interactions with business partners, suppliers, and customers.
  • B2B, C2B, C2C, and B2B are the major types of e-commerce.
  • e-Learning: e-Learning is a new concept of delivering digital content in a learner-oriented environment using information and communication technology (ICT). Delivery of digital content is the main characteristic of e-Learning.
  • e-Governance: e-Governance is the application of electronic means to improve the interaction between government and citizens, and to increase the administrative effectiveness and efficiency in the internal government's operations.
  • e-Medicine: e-Medicine refers to an approach that provides medical services whenever and wherever required using information and communication technology.
  • Mobile computing: Mobile computing is a generic term describing one's ability to use technology while moving, as opposed to portable computers, which are only practical for use while deployed in stationary configurations.
  • Internet of Things (IoT): IoT is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects, or people to transfer data over a network.

C. Short Answer Questions:

  1. Define artificial intelligence. What are the applications of artificial intelligence?
  2. Define robot and robotics. Explain the essential characteristics of the robot.
  3. What is a robot? Explain the essential characteristics of the robot.
  4. Define cloud computing. Explain the advantages of cloud computing.
  5. Explain types of cloud computing and cloud service.
  6. What do you mean by big data? Explain its characteristics and types.
  7. Explain the bid data with advantages and disadvantages.
  8. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of Virtual reality.
  9. Define e-commerce and e-business. What are the advantages and disadvantages of e-commerce?
  10. What do you mean by e-Medicine? Discuss its importance and challenges in developing countries like Nepal.
  11. Explain mobile computing along with its advantages and disadvantages.
  12. Explain the Internet of Things along with its advantages and disadvantages.

D. Long Answer Questions:

  1. Explain artificial intelligence along with its major types and different components.
  2. Define e-Governance. Why is it so important in the sustainable development of any country? Why is it so challenging to implement in developing countries like Nepal?
  3. Explain virtual reality along with its types and application in different fields.
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Important Questions for Computer Science Grade-XII for NEB Exam:

Unit 1: Database Management System

  1. What are Database and DBMS? List out the advantages and disadvantages of DBMS.
  2. Explain the different models of DBMS with advantages and disadvantages.
  3. Write differentiate between centralized and distributed database systems.
  4. Who is DBA? What are the major responsibilities of DBA?
  5. What is normalization? Explain the normalization process with examples.
  6. Define the following terms.
    • a) Data Dictionary 
    • b) Primary Key 
    • c) Relationship 
    • d) DML
    • e) SQL
    • f) Data Integrity 
    • g) DDL 
    • h) Data Security 
    • i) Database System

Unit 2: Data Communication and Networking

  1. What is Computer Network? Explain the advantages and disadvantages of a computer network.
  2. Discuss different types of computer networks based on size.
  3. What do you mean by network topology? Explain the different types of network topologies.
  4. Differentiate between LAN and WAN.
  5. Define network architecture. Differentiate between client-server and peer-to-peer networks.
  6. Differentiate between Simplex, Half Duplex, and Full Duplex.
  7. Differentiate between the internet and intranet.
  8. What is Internet addressing? Discuss Network Tool.
  9. What do you mean by transmission media? Explain the different types of transmission media used in computer networks?
  10. What do you mean by the OSI reference model? Explain the different layers of the OSI reference model.
  11. Define the following terms:
    • a) Repeater
    • b) Bridge
    • c) Protocol
    • d) Router
    • e) Satellite
    • f) Microwave
    • System
    • g) subnet Mask
    • h) MAC address
    • i) Coaxial Cable
    • j) Fiber Optic Cable

UNIT 3: Web Technology II

  1. What is web technology? Explain different data types used in JavaScript.
  2. Differentiate between client-side scripting and Server-side scripting.
  3. What is event handling in JavaScript? Give one example.
  4. What is JQuery? Write its features and Write a program to display the message "Hello Class 12" using JQuery.
  5. What is JavaScript? How can you add JavaScript to an HTML page? Describe with an example.
  6. What is jQuery? Write its features.
  7. What is JavaScript function? Explain with calling function examples.
  8. What is PHP? Write the advantages of PHP.
  9. Explain the different operators used in PHP.
  10. What are the features of PHP? Write a PHP program to display the largest among three numbers.
  11. Define SQL? Write down the SQL queries to create a database, create a table in the database, insert data in the table, and query the data to display it.
  12. Write down the server-side script to create a database, connect with it, create a table and insert data in it.

Practical Programs

  1. Write a JavaScript to display 1 to 10 using for loop, while loop, and do-while loop.
  2. Create a Page with a button with the value "Computer" on clicking the button your page should be" Computer Science".
  3. Write a JavaScript program to display "Welcome Class-12" using the onload event.
  4. Design a form with username, address, e-mail, password, and submit button. Validated the form using jQuery.
  5. Design a form with a username and password and submit button. Write a PHP code to get the value of username and password using a) $_POST variable and b) $_GET variable.
  6. Write a PHP program to check if a string is a palindrome or not.
  7. Write a JavaScript program to calculate the factorial of a given number.
  8. Write a javascript program to input three numbers and find the largest one using java and PHP.

Unit 4: Programming in C

  1. What is C? Write its Features.
  2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of C programming Languages?
  3. What is a Data type? Explain the type of data with examples.
  4. What is a variable? Explain its types.
  5. What is an operator? Write its types and explain any four of them.
  6. What is a control structure? Write a difference between break and continue statements with examples.
  7. What is looping? Write the difference between while and Do while loop with examples.
  8. Define the term array. What is the string? Explain any four-string handling function for example.
  9. What is the function? Write its features and describe its types.
  10. What is the recursion technique? Explain with one example.
  11. What is the concept of storage? Differentiate between automatic storage and external storage.
  12. What is a Structure? Explain with one example.
  13. Differentiate between array and structure.
  14. Differentiate between structure and union.
  15. Differentiate between array and pointer.
  16. Define the terms call by value and call by reference with examples.
  17. What is a pointer? Explain with examples.
  18. Differentiate between Structure and Pointer.
  19. Differentiate between sequential access and random access techniques of the data file.
  20. Differentiate between the fprintf and fscanf functions.

IMPORTANT C Program Questions:

  1. Write a program to input any three numbers and find out which one is the largest number.
  2. Write a program to display the day using the switch statement depending upon the number entered. i.e. input 1 for Sunday, and 7 for Saturday.
  3. Write a program to input a number and check whether it is prime or not.
  4. Write a program to display the sum of even and odd numbers from 1 to 50.
  5. Write a program to accept the age of 10 different employees and count the number of employees. 
      • a. Whose age is more than or equal to 60 
      • b. Whose age is less than 35
  6. Write a program to enter elements for 3x3 matrixes and Display its sum.
  7. Write a program to accept 10 different numbers in an array and sort them in descending order.
  8. Write a program to input a number and find out whether that number is a palindrome or not.
  9. Write a program to input the names of N numbers of students and sort them in alphabetical order.
  10. Write a program to read a number and make the sum of individual digits and print using the recursion technique.
  11. Write a program that reads different names and address into the computer and rearrange the names into alphabetical order using the structure variables.
  12. Write a program to read N students' records store them in a data file and display the content inappropriate format by using the fprintf and fscanf functions.

Unit 5: Object-Oriented Programming (OOP)

  1. What is OOP? Describe its features.
  2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using OOP?
  3. Explain the term polymorphism and inheritance.
  4. Difference between OOP and Structured Programming Language.
  5. Explain the Class, Object, and Encapsulation.

Unit 6: Software Development Model

  1. What is SPM? Explain the major activities of the Software Development Process in brief.
  2. What is Software Development Model? Explain the types of SDM with advantages and disadvantages.
  3. Who is the system analyst? Explain the role and characteristics of a system analyst.
  4. Explain in detail the waterfall, prototyping, and spiral models of software development.
  5. What is prototyping? Write down its advantages and disadvantages.
  6. Define SDLC. Explain different phases of SDLC in brief.
  7. What do you mean by feasibility study? Why is it necessary before designing a system?
  8. Define system testing. Difference between black box testing and white box testing.
  9. What are the algorithm and flowchart? Write the difference between a system and a program flowchart.
  10. Differentiate between System analysts and System engineers.
  11. Define the following terms.
    • A) DFD
    • B) ER diagram
    • C) Case diagram
    • D) UML
    • E) System Flowchart
    • F) Documentation
    • G) Algorithm
    • H) Pseudocode
    • I) Decision table and decision tree
    • J) Prototyping model
    • K) Spiral Model

Unit 7: Recent Trends in Technology

  1. What do you mean by AI? How does it affect modern society?
  2. Explain the concept of Big Data and Its types.
  3. What is Big data? Write its application.
  4. What is E-commerce? Write down its advantages.
  5. What is mobile computing? Write its features.
  6. Define the following terms:
    • a) M-commerce
    • b) Robotics
    • c) E-Learning
    • d) Virtual Reality
    • e) Social Media
    • f) IOT
    • g) E-governance
    • h) Cloud computing

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About the Author

Iswori Rimal is the author of, a popular education platform in Nepal. Iswori helps students in their SEE, Class 11 and Class 12 studies with Complete Notes, important questions and other study materials.

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