**Unit 1: Volumetric Analysis**

In this Post, We Provide Class 12 Chemistry Unit 1 Volumetric Complete Notes for NEB Students for 2080.

Unit 2: Ionic Equilibrium Class 12 Chemistry Complete Notes

Volumetric analysis Course content |
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1.1 Define and explain the terms volumetric and gravimetric analysis. |

1.2 Express the concentration of solutions in terms of percentage, g/l, molarity, molality, normality, ppm, ppb |

1.3 Define and calculate the equivalent weight of (elements, acids, bases, salts, oxidizing and reducing agents). |

1.4 Express the concentration of the solution in terms of normality. |

1.5 Explain and apply the concept of the law of equivalence in chemical calculation. |

1.6 Define and explain primary and secondary standard substances. |

1.7 Explain different types of titration and their applications. |

Unit 1: Volumetric Analysis |

## Volumetric analysis Introduction

**Volumetric analysis** is defined as the process of the determination of the concentration of an unknown solution by finding its volume which will exactly react with a definite volume of another solution of known concentration.

Gravimetric analysis is defined as the process of quantitative determination of an analyte(the ion being analyzed) based on the mass of a solid.

At first solution of given sample is prepared, treated with suitable reagent to convert into insoluble form which is made pure by washing, dried and weighed. Then the weight of the required substance is calculated with the help of theoretical concept.

**Eg. How much SO4-- ion is present in a given sample of Na2SO4?**

A known amount of the given sample is dissolved in water and the excess amount of BaCl2 is added to the solution so that all SO4-- is converted into insoluble BaSO4. The precipitate is washed and made pure, it is then dried and weighed. Let the weight of BaSO4 formed is Y gm.

We know, 233 gm. of BaSO4 contains 96 gm. of SO4-- ions.

So, Y gm. of BaSO4 contains (96/233) x Y gm. of SO4--ions.

**Pre-requirements in volumetric analysis**

__Equivalent weight (equivalent mass)__

It is defined as “the no. of parts by wt. of the substance that combines with or displaces 1.008 parts by wt. of hydrogen, 8 parts by wt. of oxygen or 35.5 parts by wt. of chlorine.”

Equivalent weight is a __unit less.__

Equivalent weight expressed in gm is called gm. equivalent.

No. of gm. eqvt. = given wt./eq.wt.

**Volumetric Analysis Complete Notes - NEB Class 12 Chemistry**

Volumetric analysis

Gravimetric analysis

Eg. How much SO4 -- ion is present in a given sample of Na2SO4?

**Pre-requirements in volumetric analysis**

Equivalent weight (equivalent mass)a) Equivalent wt. of element = Atomic weight / Valency

b) Equivalent wt. of radical (ion) = wt. of radical / no. of charge on it

d) Equivalent wt. of acid = molecular weight / basicity

d) Equivalent wt. of base = molecular weight / acidity

e) Equivalent wt. of salt = molecular weight / total positive or negative charge per molecule

f) Equivalent wt. of oxidizing & reducing agent = molecular weight / total change in o.n per molecule

### Equivalent wt. of KMnO4 in a different medium

iii) Alkaline mediumi) Acidic medium

ii) Neutral medium

Relation between gL-1 & percentage

Relation between normality & gL-1

Relation between molarity and g L-1

Relation between Normality & Molarity

**Important relations between concentration units **

### Primary standard substance

Standard solution A solution of exactly known concentration is called a standard solution. The standard solution is of two types

- Primary standard solution:
- Secondary standard solution:

#### Normality factor:

Preparation of 250 ml. standard decinormal solution of Na2CO3Preparation of 250 ml standard decinormal solution of oxalic acid

## Principles of volumetric analysis

### Derivation of normality equation

N1V1 = N2V2 is true always but M1V1 = M2V2 is not true always. Why?

## Important apparatus used in the titration.

**Some important terms in volumetric analysis :**

- Titration

- Unknown Solution

- Acidimetry

- Alkalimetry

- Titrant

- Titrand

- Indicator

- End Point

- Equivalence Point

- Titration error

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