NEB Class 12 Biology Syllabus, Grid [Update 2080]

NEB Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2080. Botany, Zoology Syllabus With Specification Grid, Scopes and Sequence of Contents, Grade-wise learning outcome.

In this article, You can View and Download Class 12 Biology Syllabus and Specification Grid for NEB Exam 2080/2080. Latest Syllabus Based on the Latest Course.

NEB Class 12 Biology Syllabus, Grid [Update 2080]

Class 12 Biology Specification Grid 2080

Question Pattern:

Class 12 Biology ( Zoology, Botany) Question Patter is given as:

Question Type Number of Questions Total Marks
MCQ (Multiple Choice Question) 11 * 1 marks 11 marks
SAQ (Short Answer Question) 8 * 5 marks 40 marks
LAQ (Long Answer Question) 3 * 8 marks 24 marks

Specification Grid Class 12 Biology

Class 12 Biology (Botany, Zoology) Exam Preparation Specification Grid is given as:

NEB Class 12 Biology ( Zoology, Botany ) Exam Specification Grid

Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2080

In particular, the curriculum aims to provide sufficient knowledge and understanding of science for all learners to recognize the usefulness, and limitations, of laws and principles of biology, and use them in daily lives providing a sound foundation for students who wish to study biology or related  professional  or  vocational  courses  in  higher  education.  It  helps  to  strengthen  science process skills that are relevant to the study and application of biological science in daily life. It also provides opportunity for the learners who have deeper interest in the subject to delve into the more advanced contents so that the study of biology becomes enjoyable and satisfying to all. Moreover, it helps the students to build up capacity to identify, gather, manipulate and process information in the context of scientific endeavors including field investigations in various formats on biological issues. 

The curriculum prepared in accordance with National Curriculum Framework is structured for Class 12 2080 academic years in such a way that it incorporates the level-wise competencies, grade-wise leaning outcomes,  scope  and  sequence  of  contents,  suggested  practical/project  activities,  learning facilitation  process  and  assessment  strategies  so  as to enhance  the  learning  on  the  subject systematically. 

Scope and Sequence of Contents

Part A: Botany Theory Hours (TH)
Plant Anatomy TH = 8
1.1 Plant anatomy: Concept of tissues, types of plant tissues (meristems and permanent tissues)
Anatomy of dicot and monocot root, stem, and leaf
Secondary growth of dicot stem
Plant Physiology TH = 4 5 5 3 3
2.1 Water relation: Introduction and significance of diffusion, osmosis, and plasmolysis
Ascent of sap, transpiration, and guttation
2.2 Photosynthesis: Introduction and significance of photosynthesis
Photosynthetic pigments
Mechanism of photosynthesis (photochemical phase and Calvin-Benson cycle)
C3 and C4 plants
Factors affecting photosynthesis
2.3 Respiration: Introduction and significance of respiration
Types of respiration
Mechanism of respiration (glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport system)
Factors affecting respiration
2.4 Plant hormones: Introduction
Physiological effects of auxins, gibberellins, and cytokinins
2.5 Plant growth and movement: Concept of seed germination and dormancy
Photoperiodism and vernalization
Plant movements (tropic and nastic)
Genetics TH = 5 6 5 5
3.1 Genetic Materials: Introduction to genetics and genetic materials
Composition, structure, and function of DNA and RNA
DNA replication
Introduction of genetic code
3.2 Mendelian genetics: General terminology
Mendel's experiment and laws of inheritance
Gene interactions (incomplete dominance, co-dominance)
3.3 Linkage and crossing over: Concept and types of linkage (complete and incomplete)
Sex-linked inheritance (color blindness in humans and eye color of Drosophila)
Concept and significance of crossing over
3.4 Mutation and polyploidy: Concept and types of mutation (gene and chromosomal)
Importance of mutation (positive and negative)
Polyploidy (origin and significance)
4. Embryology: TH = 8
Asexual and sexual reproduction in angiosperms
Pollination and fertilization
Development of male and female gametophytes
Development of dicot and monocot embryos
Concept of endosperm
5. Biotechnology: TH = 7
Introduction to biotechnology
Tissue culture
Plant breeding
Disease-resistant plants
Green manure and bio-fertilizers
Genetic engineering and GMOs (genetically modified organisms) and their applications
Food safety and food security

Part B: Zoology Theory Hours (TH)
Animal Tissues TH = 8
6.1 Animal Tissues: Introduction
Types of animal tissues: epithelial, connective, muscular, and nervous (structure, functions & location of different sub-types)
Developmental Biology TH = 2 4
7.1 Gametogenesis: Spermatogenesis & Oogenesis
7.2 Development of frog: Fertilization & its effects
Cleavage, morulation, blastulation, gastrulation
Organogenesis – formation of notochord, nerve cord & coelom
Human Biology TH = 2 2 4 3 3 2 9 3
8.1 Digestive system: Alimentary canal and digestive glands
Physiology of digestion
8.2 Respiratory System: Respiratory organs
Respiratory mechanism - exchange of gases, transport of gases, and regulation of respiration
8.3 Circulatory System: Double circulation (concept)
Heart (structure and working mechanism)
Origin and conduction of heart beat
Cardiac cycle, cardiac output
Arterial and venous systems (major arteries and veins)
Blood grouping, blood pressure
8.4 Excretory System: Concept of modes of excretion (ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism)
Excretory organs
Mechanism of urine formation
8.5 Nervous system: Types of nervous system (central, peripheral & autonomous)
Structure and function of the brain
Origin and conduction of nerve impulse
8.6 Sense organs: Structure and functions of the eye and ear
8.7 Endocrinology: Endocrine glands and hormones – structure & functions of hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads
Hypo- and hyper-activity and related disorders
8.8 Reproductive System: Male and female reproductive organs
Ovarian & menstrual cycle
Human Population and Health Disorders TH = 2 4
9.1 Human Population: Growth problem and control strategies
Concept of demographic cycle
9.2 Health disorders: Concept of cardiovascular, respiratory & renal disorders
Substance abuse: Drug, alcohol, and smoking abuse
Applied Biology TH = 6 10
10.1 Application of Zoology: Tissue and organ transplantation
In-vitro fertilization (IVF), amniocentesis
Concept of genetically modified organisms (transgenic animals)
Poultry farming and fish farming
10.2 Microbial diseases and application of microbiology: Risk and hazard group of microorganisms
Introduction, causative agents, symptoms, prevention, and control measures of selected human diseases: Typhoid, Tuberculosis, and HIV infection, cholera, influenza, hepatitis, candidiasis
Basic concepts of immunology–vaccines
Application of microorganisms in dairy and beverage industries
Microbial contamination of water, sewage, and drinking water treatment
Bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers

Grade-wise learning outcomes

Part A: Botany
Plant Anatomy (8)
1.1 Explain the concept of tissues.
1.2 Classify types of plant tissues.
1.3 Explain the anatomical structure of the root, stem, and leaf of monocot and dicot plants.
1.4 Define the meaning and mechanism of secondary growth in dicot stem.
1.5 Investigate the structures and functions of plant tissues, and factors affecting plant growth.
1.6 Demonstrate an understanding of the diversity of vascular plants, including their structures, internal transport systems, and their role in maintaining biodiversity.
Plant Physiology (20)
2.1 Describe the terms diffusion, osmosis, plasmolysis, ascent of sap, transpiration, and guttation.
2.2 Define photosynthesis and explain pigments, mechanism, C3 and C4 plants, and factors affecting photosynthesis.
2.3 Explain respiration, types of respiration, mechanism, and factors affecting respiration.
2.4 Define phytohormone and explain the physiological role of auxins, gibberellins, and cytokinins.
2.5 Describe the terms seed germination, dormancy, photoperiodism, vernalization, senescence, and plant movements.
2.6 Analyze the role of metabolic processes in biotic and abiotic systems and evaluate their importance.
2.7 Investigate the products of metabolic processes such as cellular respiration and photosynthesis.
2.8 Demonstrate an understanding of the chemical changes and energy conversions in metabolic processes.
Genetics (21)
3.1 Define genetics, genetic material, and their composition.
3.2 Draw the structure of DNA and RNA.
3.3 Describe the mechanism of DNA replication.
3.4 Define genetic code.
3.5 Describe the terminology of genetics, Mendel's experiments, and complete and incomplete dominance.
3.6 Explain linkage, complete and incomplete linkage, sex-linked inheritance, crossing over, and their significances.
3.7 Describe mutation, its importance, and the concept of polyploidy.
3.8 Evaluate the importance of recent contributions to our knowledge of genetic processes and analyze social and ethical implications of genetic and genomic research.
3.9 Investigate genetic processes during meiosis and solve basic genetics problems involving monohybrid and dihybrid crosses.
3.10 Demonstrate an understanding of concepts, processes, and technologies related to the transmission of hereditary characteristics.
Embryology (8)
4.1 Explain sexual and asexual reproduction of angiosperms, pollination, and fertilization process.
4.2 Describe the developmental process of male and female gametophyte.
4.3 Demonstrate the developmental process of dicot and monocot embryos.
4.4 Describe endosperm and its importance.
Biotechnology (7)
5.1 Define biotechnology, tissue culture, plant breeding, disease resistance plant, green manure, and bio-fertilizer.
5.2 Analyze social, ethical, and legal issues associated with genetic research and biotechnology.
5.3 Investigate the structures of cell components and their roles within the cell.
5.4 Demonstrate an understanding of concepts related to molecular genetics and how genetic modification is applied in industry and agriculture.
Part B: Zoology
Animal Tissues (8)
6.1 Describe the types of animal tissues: epithelial, connective, muscular, and nervous, their functions, and how these functions are associated with the features of each tissue.
6.2 Describe the structure, functions, and locations of different subtypes of the four main animal tissues.
6.3 Describe the structure and functions of nervous tissue.
6.4 Explain which type of tissue composes cartilage and bones.
6.5 Explain the structure of striated muscle.
6.6 Discuss the structure of a neuron.
Developmental Biology (6)
7.1 Define and explain the process of spermatogenesis and oogenesis.
7.2 State the biochemical changes that take place during fertilization in frogs.
7.3 Describe the development of a frog up to the formation of three germ layers.
7.4 Discuss the importance of gastrulation in a frog's egg.
7.5 Explain the effects of yolk on gastrulation in the development of a frog.
7.6 Explain the formation of the notochord, nerve cord, and coelom in the development of a frog.
Human Biology (28)
8.1 Describe the alimentary canal and digestive glands of humans and discuss the physiology of digestion.
8.2 Explain how digestion is completed in the small intestine.
8.3 Discuss the role of salivary glands, liver, and pancreas in the digestion of food.
8.4 Explain the respiratory organs and respiratory mechanism in humans.
8.5 Explain the exchange of gases, transport of gases, and regulation of respiration.
8.6 Explain how CO2 is transported from tissues to lungs.
8.7 Describe the exchange of gases that takes place between the alveolus and blood capillary.
8.8 Explain how hemoglobin is associated with respiration.
8.9 Define double circulation and describe the structure of the human heart.
8.10 Explain the origin and conduction of heartbeats, cardiac cycle, and cardiac output.
8.11 Describe the arterial and venous systems (major arteries and veins) in humans.
8.12 State blood grouping and blood pressure.
8.13 Mention briefly the modes of excretion.
8.14 Describe the excretory organs and discuss the process of urine formation in humans.
8.15 Mention the types of the nervous system.
8.16 Give the structure and function of the human brain.
8.17 Discuss how nerve impulses travel in and across an axon.
8.18 Describe the structure and functions of various parts of the human eye and ear.
8.19 Differentiate between exocrine and endocrine glands.
8.20 Differentiate between hormones and enzymes.
8.21 Describe the various endocrine glands, their location, structure, hormones secreted, and their functions.
8.22 Mention the disorders/diseases caused by deficiency or over-secretion of various hormones.
8.23 Describe male and female reproductive organs.
8.24 Explain the various stages of the ovarian cycle.
8.25 Explain how the ovarian cycle governs the preparation of endocrine tissues and the release of eggs, while the menstrual cycle governs the preparation and maintenance of the uterine lining. These cycles occur concurrently and are coordinated over a 22–32 day cycle, with an average length of 28 days.
8.26 Analyze the social or economic impact of a technology used to treat systems in the human body and the impact of lifestyle choices on human health.
8.27 Investigate, through laboratory inquiry or computer simulation, the anatomy, physiology, and response mechanisms of mammals.
8.28 Demonstrate an understanding of the structure, function, and interactions of the circulatory, digestive, and respiratory systems of mammals.
8.29 Evaluate the impact on the human body of selected chemical substances and environmental factors related to human activity.
8.30 Investigate the feedback mechanisms that maintain homeostasis in living organisms.
8.31 Demonstrate an understanding of the anatomy and physiology of human body systems and explain the mechanisms that enable the body to maintain homeostasis.
8.32 Analyze the relationships between changing societal needs, technological advances, and our understanding of the internal systems of humans.
8.33 Investigate, through laboratory inquiry or computer simulation, the functional responses of the respiratory and circulatory systems of animals and the relationships between their respiratory, circulatory, and digestive systems.
8.34 Demonstrate an understanding of animal anatomy and physiology and describe disorders of the respiratory, circulatory, and digestive systems.
Human Population and Health Disorders (6)
9.1 List various reasons for human population growth and discuss how it can be controlled.
9.2 Explain the human population growth curve.
9.3 Describe the demographic cycle briefly.
9.4 Explain cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal disorders common in Nepal.
9.5 Explain substance abuse: drug, alcohol, and smoking abuse.
9.6 Analyze the relationships between population growth, personal consumption, technological development, and our ecological footprint and assess the effectiveness of some Canadian initiatives intended to assist expanding populations.
9.7 Investigate the characteristics of population growth and use models to calculate the growth of populations within an ecosystem.
9.8 Demonstrate an understanding of concepts related to population growth and explain the factors that affect the growth of various populations of species.
Applied Biology (16)
10.1 Explain tissue and organ transplantation. Organs that have been successfully transplanted include the heart, kidneys, brain, liver, lungs, pancreas, intestines, and thymus. Tissues include bones, tendons (both referred to as musculoskeletal grafts), corneas, skin, heart valves, nerves, and veins.
10.2 Explain in-vitro fertilization (IVF), which is an assisted reproductive technology (ART).
10.3 Explain amniocentesis, also referred to as the amniotic fluid test (AFT), which is a medical procedure used in the prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities, fetal infections, and sex determination.
10.4 Describe genetically modified organisms (transgenic animals). These animals, most commonly mice, have had a foreign gene deliberately inserted into their genome.
10.5 Describe poultry farming and fish farming and their prospects in Nepal.
10.6 Enumerate the risk and hazard groups of microorganisms.
10.7-10.8 Write the introduction, causative agents, symptoms, and prevention and control of bacterial, viral, and protozoal diseases.
10.9 Write a short note on cancer and its prevention and control.
10.10 Describe health hazards, effects, and control measures of environmental pollution caused by different pollutants.
10.11 Describe different types of pollution (air, water, soil) and their impacts on the environment and human health.
10.12 Discuss the causes, effects, and prevention and control measures of waterborne diseases in Nepal.
10.13 Write the symptoms, prevention, and control of common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
10.14 Describe the importance of balanced nutrition.
10.15 Explain the factors that affect malnutrition.
10.16 Describe some common mental disorders and their symptoms and prevention.

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