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NEB Class 12 Routine 2080-2081: Class 12 Routine

Grade 12 Accounting II Syllabus (2080)

Grade 12 Accounting II syllabus for 2080, recently released by NEB, offers a comprehensive curriculum for students of Class 12 Account.

Class 12 Accounting II Syllabus: Grade 12 Accounting II syllabus for 2080, recently released by NEB, offers a Class 12 Comprehensive Curriculum for students studying Account subject.

Accounting II Syllabus, Grade 12

  • Principle of Accounting II
  • Subject code: 104
  • Annual Teaching hours: 160
  • Credit hours: 5

Unit 1: Accounting for Companies

1.1 Concept of corporate 6LH

1.1.1 Company

  • Private company and public company: Meaning, Characteristic;
  • Differences between private company and public company;
  • Documents of the company (memorandum of association, articles of association and prospectus)

1.2 Accounting for shares 8LH

1.2.1 Capital of the company

  • Meaning of share capital, types of share capital (authorized, issued, subscribed, called up and paid up capital);
  • Shares of the company: meaning, characteristic types of shares (ordinary and preference shares);
  • Types of preference shares: redeemable preference shares, irredeemable preference shares, convertible preference shares, non-convertible preference shares, participating preference shares, non-participating preference shares, cumulative preference shares, non-cumulative preference shares;
  • Difference between equity shares and preference shares;
  • Procedures of share issue as per the Nepal Company Act.
  • Method of share issue and accounting recoding: lump sum basis, installment basis;
  • Forfeiture of shares and reissue of shares;
  • Under subscription of shares, over subscription of shares (excess shares entire rejected, pro-rata allotment, mixed allotment);
  • Shares issued for cash at par, premium and discount;
  • Shares issued at other than cash;
  • Share issued for underwriting commission and brokerage.  

1.3 Accounting for debentures 5LH

1.3.1 Debenture

  • Meaning, characteristic and importance of debentures;
  • Types of debentures: bearer and registered, naked and secured, redeemable and irredeemable, convertible and non-convertible, first and second debentures;
  • Differences between shares and debentures;
  • Issue of debentures in consideration for other than cash
  • Accounting treatment for debentures issue: lump sum basis;
  • Issue of debentures with redeemable condition;
  • Issue of debentures for collateral security;
  • Redemption of debentures at lump sum basis;
  • Conversion of debentures into shares.

Unit 2: Corporate Financial Statements

2.1 Corporate Financial Statements 24LH

2.1.1 Preparation of financial statements

  • Meaning of financial statement;
  • Traditional financial statements (trading account, profit and loss account, profit and loss appropriation account, balance sheet);
  • Financial statements (income statement; retained earnings and balance sheet) with adjustments or without adjustment as per Nepal Accounting Standard and Nepal Financial Report Standards;
  • Statement changing in shareholders’ equity.

2.2 Worksheet 8LH

2.2.1 Preparation of worksheet;

  • Introduction of worksheet and need of worksheet;

2.3 Cash flow statement 18LH

2.3.1 Cash flow statement

  • Preparation of cash flow statement with adjustment (direct and indirect method) on the basis of worksheet or trial balance;
  • Preparation of cash flow statement with adjustment (direct and indirect method) on the basis of comparative balance sheet.

Unit 3: Cost Accounting

3.1 Concept of cost accounting 4LH

3.1.1 Introduction of cost accounting

  • Cost accounting: meaning, objectives, importance and limitation;
  • Limitation of financial accounting;
  • Differences between cost accounting and financial accounting;
  • Method of costing: job order costing, contract costing, process costing, service costing, unit costing, batch costing and multiple costing.

3.1.2 Introduction and classification of cost

  • Concept of cost, classification of cost on the basis of production, process, elements, functions, variability and controllability; 

3.2 Materials and materials control 10LH

3.2.1 Materials and materials control

  • Meaning and types of materials, objectives and essential of materials control.
  • Purchase and receipt procedures: materials purchasing and purchase department, centralized and decentralized
  • Receipt of purchasing order; preparation of purchase requisition form, tender form, purchase order form, receipt of materials, inspection of materials and payment of materials;
  • Purchase department: centralize purchase and decentralize purchase;
  • Store keeping:  meaning, types and location of store;
  • Storekeeper: duties and responsibilities of storekeeper;
  • Classification and codification of materials;
  • Bin cards.
  • Issuing: meaning and preparation of requisition form;
  • Pricing of materials issue;
  • Valuation of closing stock under FIFO, LIFO, average and weighted average methods;
  • Stock level: meaning and computation of stock level; maximum stock level, minimum stock level, average stock level, reorder stock level and reordering quantity.
  • Economic order quantity: meaning, concept and computation of EOQ; total cost at EOQ by using formula, EOQ by trial and error method, reorder level and calculation of total cost.

3.3 Accounting for labour 4LH

3.3.1 Accounting for labour

  • Labour cost: meaning and importance; labour cost control and its need;
  • Basic knowledge of labour requisition form, employees’ history card, time card, biometric machine, job card, piece card and payroll sheet.
  • System of wage payment: meaning, advantage, disadvantage of piece rate system and time rate system;
  • Differences between piece rate system, time rate system
  • Determination of total wages using piece rate and time rate system.

3.4 Accounting for overhead or indirect expenses 2LH

3.4.1 Overhead or indirect expenses

  • Overhead: concept and meaning of overhead;
  • Classification of overhead on the basis of function, behavior, elements and control;
  • Allocation, apportionment and absorption of overhead: meaning and importance.

3.5 Unit or output costing 16LH

3.5.1 Unit or output costing

  • Unit costing: meaning and importance of unit costing;
  • Components of cost sheet: prime cost, works cost, office on cost, cost of production, cost of goods sold, selling and distribution cost, cost of sales, profit and total sales;
  • Preparation of cost sheet;
  • Tender and historical cost: meaning and calculation of tender cost on the basis of cost sheet.

3.6 Cost reconciliation statement 5LH

3.6.1 Cost reconciliation statement

  • Meaning of cost reconciliation statement;
  • Causes of differences of net profit or loss of financial accounting and cost accounting;
  • Preparation of cost reconciliation statement.


Unit 4: Computer Accounting

4.1 Use of computer in accounting 10LH

4.1.1 Computer systems in accounting

  • The meaning, elements, importance and limits of computer system in accounting
  • Computer System Process: sources of information in a computer system (invoice, purchase order, receipt, barcode)
  • Information analysis
  • Information processor: journals, ledgers and reports,
  • Storage of information: Data storage method
  • Records in Excel: depreciation table, debt repayment table, payroll sheet

4.1.2 Use of software in accounting

  • Software: use of software, software system language refiner, accounting software requirements and features
  • Company creation, accounting masters, accounting group, journal, ledger, balance test, income statement and balance sheet, report performance, bank account reconciliation details preparation (for small projects only)

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