Understanding The Text.
Answer the following questions.
a. Describe the claim of the Chinese nationalists about human history.
Answer➡ Chinese nationalists claim that human history began with the Yellow Emperor and the Xia and Shang dynasties and that any accomplishments by Westerners, Muslims, or Indians are merely pale imitations of genuine Chinese achievements.
b. What do pious Muslims believe about human history?
Answer➡ Pious Muslims believe that all history before the Prophet Muhammad is largely meaningless and that all history following the revelation of the Quran revolves around the Muslim ummah.
c. What did the Aztecs firmly believe about the universe?
Answer➡ The Aztecs firmly believed that without the annual sacrifices they performed, the sun would not rise and the whole cosmos would collapse.
d. What, according to the essay, are universal human abilities?
Answer➡ According to the essay, the universal human abilities are morality, art, spirituality, and creativity.
e. How are the basic yoga postures derived from the shape of the letters of the Hebrew alphabet?
Answer➡ The basic yoga postures are derived from the shape of the letters of the Hebrew alphabet as the yoga posture Trikonasana imitates the form of the Hebrew letter "aleph," Tuladandasana imitates the letter "daled," and so on.
Reference To The Context.
a. How do Hindu nationalists refute the Chinese claim that human history really began with the Yellow Emperor and the Xia and Shang dynasties? Who do you agree with, and why?
In the text, we find varieties of claims of people of different nations regarding human history. Here, Chinese nationalists claim that human history really began with the Yellow Emperor and the Xia and Shang dynasties, which later followed and imitated by Westerners, Muslims or Indians and many others. But Hindu nationalists refute these Chinese boasts or claims and argue that even aeroplanes and nuclear bombs were invented by ancient sages in the Indian subcontinent long before Confucius or Plato, not to mention Einstein and the Wright brothers. They take the references of Hindu mythology and examples of Maharishi Bhardwaj who invented rockets and aeroplanes, and Vishwamitra who not only invented but also used missiles. Furthermore, they regard Acharya Kanad as the father of atomic theory.
They refute the claims of Chinese human history stating that even nuclear weapons were used during the Mahabharata time so that is how these later developed civilizations gave birth to this.
I agree with the claims of Hindu nationalists because the Hindu holy books have many instances of the origin of human history and nuclear weapons. Even Ramayana and Mahabharata have a very clear message about this which was originated a long time ago than the Chinese claims of human history. Hinduism is the oldest religion in the world.
b. The author has dealt with a controversial debate on human history. Why do you think history has been a major contested issue in the present world?
Due to egoism, most of the people think they are the centre of the world and their culture is superior to all other cultures. They think their history is the oldest one and everything derived/originated from their culture. History has been a major contested issue in the present world due to egoism. The author wants to debunk humanity's illusion of superiority and mastery.
Reference beyond the text.
a. Write a short essay on The Conflicting History of Human Civilization.
The Conflicting History of Human Civilization
Civilization refers to the advancement in human culture in terms of technology. Science, politics, and division of labor. The world is currently experiencing technological changes which have made life better for everyone. The ancient civilization was determined by factors like technology, trade, etc.
Historians have identified the essential characteristics of civilization. Six essential characteristics are cities, religion, social structures, writing, government, and art. Civilization first appeared in Mesopotamia (Iraq) and later in Egypt. Civilization ultimately developed on every continent except Antarctica. While our ancestors have been around for about 6 million years, the modern form of human-only evolved about 2,00,000 years ago. Civilization has led to the integration
of the world, and many discoveries are still being made even now. Modern society has been transformed through civilization. Modern technology has really facilitated civilization, and we, therefore, envisage a more civilized world in the future.
b. The author claims, “Since it is more polite to criticise one’s own people than to criticise foreigners.” Do you agree to his claim? Give your reasons.
People are very interested in their own history and culture. The criticism of their religion or ethnicity offends them. Nothing about our faith, culture, or civilization is disputed by us.
Human sacrifice and religious study are not the way to keep our cosmos afloat. No one knows how old the cosmos is, so assuming that human sacrifice and religious reading can save it is absurd.
If the Egyptians had created the missile and rocket, we could have gone to the moon long ago. If we as foreigners protest these activities, we may cause a cultural conflict. So, we must repair these flaws by ourselves.